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 Here we should introduce the concept of money and what it actually is. Money is a token issued by a government (the Reserve Bank).

Unlike the United States Federal Reserve, the Reserve Bank does not have elements of private ownership; according to its website, "The Reserve Bank does not have shareholders. It is 100% 'owned' by the New Zealand Government, with any extra revenue that the Reserve Bank makes going back into the Crown accounts. The Central Bank is not a government department, but is a body corporate whose finances are included in the Crown accounts."

 Being the government's central bank and sole banknote issuing authority, the Reserve Bank has the power under the law to require all debts (financial obligations) owing in a particular region or soverign state to be repaid in legal tender. Soverignty is the right of the people enacted through a parliament. It follows that it is the right of the population to contribute equally to the election of the representatives who constitute the parliament.

You could argue that coinage began in China when a man who was the manufacturer of what was then an innovation, an iron or bronze 'spade' attached to a wooden handle, decided to manufacture tokens made in bronze which had a picture of a spade on them. His idea was that teh government would issue these tokens to people who wanted to purchase a spade from him, and that tehy would also manufacture and issue 'coins' or tokens for goods of an equal value. He took the tokens the government has given out to people, and exchanged each one for a spade. When he had quite a quantity of these tokens, he took them back to the government official, hoping to exchange them for tokens for other items, but the government had issued none, so he was stuck with his useless tokens, and was out of pocket for all the spades he had given away for free.

This amy be a true story, and may not be the first example of coins in China or elsewhere in the world however it does illustrate a point.

The Bank of England


The Minister of Education

State Housing 

The Minister of State Housing


The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 as Australia's central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank to it.[2]


The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling but in practice used as a bullion coin.


Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. Rights are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics, especially theories of justice and deontology.

Rights are often considered fundamental to civilization, being regarded as established pillars of society and culture, and the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. The connection between rights and struggle cannot be overstated — rights are not as much granted or endowed as they are fought for and claimed, and the essence of struggles past and ancient are encoded in the spirit of current concepts of rights and their modern formulations.


 The Minister of Health

The Minister of Finance


A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication. Monarchs may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) or ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve power, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy).
Human rights are "basic rights and freedoms that all people are entitled to regardless of nationality, sex, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, language, or other status."[1] Human rights are conceived as universal and egalitarian, with all people having equal rights by virtue of being human.[1][2] These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national and international law.
A spade is a tool designed primarily for the purpose of digging or removing earth.[1] Early spades were made of riven wood. After the art of metalworking was discovered, spades were made with sharper tips of metal. Before the advent of metal spades manual labor was less efficient at moving earth, with picks being required to break up the soil in addition to a spade for moving the dirt. With a metal tip, a spade can both break and move the earth in most situations, increasing efficiency.



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