JavaScript and Browsers

What is JavaScript?

What is a Browser?
What is a modem?

Microsoft vs Sun
Browser Wars
Microsoft DOS and Virtual Memory
386 and Virtual Memory

A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a virtual machine capable of executing Java bytecode. Sun Microsystems states there are over 4.5 billion JVM-enabled devices.[1]

 Microsoft DOS and Virtual memory

Java bytecode is an intermediate language which is typically compiled from Java, but it can also be compiled from other programming languages. For example, Ada source code can be compiled to Java bytecode and executed on a JVM.

Oracle, the owner of Java, produces a JVM, but JVMs using the "Java" trademark may be developed by other companies as long as they adhere to the JVM specification published by Oracle and to related contractual obligations.

The Oracle JVM is written in the C programming language.[2]


Starting with J2SE 5.0, changes to the JVM specification have been developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 924.[11] As of 2006, changes to specification to support changes proposed to the class file format (JSR 202[12]) are being done as a maintenance release of JSR 924. The specification for the JVM is published in book form,[13] known as "blue book". The preface states:

We intend that this specification should sufficiently document the Java Virtual Machine to make possible compatible clean-room implementations. Oracle provides tests that verify the proper operation of implementations of the Java Virtual Machine.

Oracle's JVM is called HotSpot. Clean-room Java implementations include Kaffe and IBM J9. Oracle retains control over the Java trademark, which it uses to certify implementation suites as fully compatible with Oracle's specification.

Intel Corporation (NASDAQINTC) is an American multinational technology corporation headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States and the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue.[4] It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968, as Integrated Electronics Corporation (though a common misconception is that "Intel" is from the word intelligence). Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Though Intel was originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.
Jython programs can seamlessly[citation needed] import and use any Java class. Except for some standard modules, Jython programs use Java classes instead of Python modules. Jython includes almost all of the modules in the standard Python programming language distribution, lacking only some of the modules implemented originally in C. For example, a user interface in Jython could be written with Swing, AWT or SWT. Jython compiles to Java bytecode (intermediate language) either on demand or statically.
The Microsoft Java Virtual Machine was a proprietary Java Virtual Machine computer program from Microsoft. It was first made available for Internet Explorer version 3 so that users could run Java applets when browsing on the World Wide Web. It was the fastest Windows-based implementation of a Java virtual machine for the first two years after its release.[1] Sun Microsystems, the creator of Java, sued Microsoft in October 1997 for incompletely implementing the Java 1.1 standard.[2] It was also named in the United States v. Microsoft antitrust civil actions, as an implementation of Microsoft's Embrace, extend and extinguish strategy. In 2001, Microsoft settled the lawsuit with Sun and discontinued its Java implementation[citation needed].
Virtual memory combines active RAM and inactive memory in disk form into a large range of contiguous addresses.

C (pronounced like the letter C) is a general-purpose computer programming language developed between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.[2]

Although C was designed for implementing system software,[4] it is also widely used for developing portable application software.

C is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time[5][6] and there are very few computer architectures for which a C compiler does not exist. C has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C++, which began as an extension to

AOL Inc. (NYSEAOL, stylized as "Aol.", and previously known as America Online) is an American global Internet services and media company.[3][4] AOL is headquartered at 770 Broadway in New York.[5][6] Founded in 1983 as Control Video Corporation, it has franchised its services to companies in several nations around the world or set up international versions of its services.[7]

AOL is best known for its online software suite, also called AOL, that allowed customers to access the world's largest "walled garden" online community and eventually reach out to the Internet as a whole. At its prime, AOL's membership was over 30 million members worldwide,[8] most of whom accessed the AOL service through the AOL software suite.

In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged under the name AOL Time Warner. The merger was not fruitful and on May 28, 2009, Time Warner announced that it would spin off AOL into a separate public company. The spinoff occurred on December 9, 2009,[9] ending the eight-year relationship between the two companies.[10]

In computing, virtual memory is a memory management technique developed for multitasking kernels. This technique virtualizes a computer architecture's various forms of computer data storage (such as random-access memory and disk storage), allowing a program to be designed as though there is only one kind of memory, "virtual" memory, which behaves like directly addressable read/write memory (RAM).

Antitrust trial

Microsoft's proprietary extensions to Java were used as evidence in the United States v. Microsoft antitrust civil actions.

A Memorandum of the United States in Support of Motion for Preliminary Injunction in the case of United States of America vs. Microsoft claimed that Microsoft wanted to kill Java in the marketplace.

In short, Microsoft feared and sought to impede the development of network effects that cross-platform technology like Netscape Navigator and Java might enjoy and use to challenge Microsoft's monopoly. Another internal Microsoft document indicates that the plan was not simply to blunt Java/browser cross-platform momentum, but to destroy the cross-platform threat entirely, with the "Strategic Objective" described as to "Kill cross-platform Java by grow[ing] the polluted Java market."[3]

Sun vs. Microsoft

In October 1997, Sun Microsystems, the creator of Java, sued Microsoft for incompletely implementing the Java 1.1 standard.[4]

In January 2001, Sun and Microsoft settled the suit. Microsoft paid Sun $20 million and the two agreed to a plan for Microsoft to phase out products that included the older version of Microsoft Java that allegedly infringed on Sun's Java copyrights and trademarks.

The Microsoft Java Virtual Machine was discontinued in 2001 in response to the Sun Microsystems lawsuit. Microsoft continued to offer support until June 30, 2009.[5]


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