A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content.[2] Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. A web browser can also be defined as an application software or program designed to enable users to access, retrieve and view documents and other resources on the Internet.

Although browsers are primarily intended to access the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems.

The major web browsers are Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, and Opera.
Browser wars is a metaphorical term that refers to competitions for dominance in usage share in the web browser marketplace. The term is often used to denote two specific rivalries: the competition that saw Microsoft's Internet Explorer replace Netscape's Navigator as the dominant browser during the late 1990s and the erosion of Internet Explorer's market share since 2003 by a collection of emerging browsers including Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, and Opera.

The first browser war

Development was rapid and new features were routinely added, including Netscape's JavaScript (subsequently replicated by Microsoft as JScript) and proprietary HTML tags such as <blink> and <marquee>.

Internet Explorer began to approach feature parity with Netscape with version 3.0 (1996), which offered scripting support and the market's first commercial Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) implementation.

In October 1997, Internet Explorer 4.0 was released. The release party in San Francisco featured a ten-foot-tall letter "e" logo. Netscape employees showing up to work the following morning found the giant logo on their front lawn, with a sign attached that read "From the IE team ... We Love You". The Netscape employees promptly knocked it over and set a giant figure of their Mozilla dinosaur mascot atop it, holding a sign reading "Netscape 72, Microsoft 18" representing the market distribution.[8]

A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from light emitting diodes to radio. The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital data of a personal computer into modulated electrical signals in the voice frequency range of a telephone channel. These signals can be transmitted over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data.

Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (bit/s, or bps). Modems can alternatively be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud. The baud unit denotes symbols per second, or the number of times per second the modem sends a new signal. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying, that is to say, tones of different frequencies, with two possible frequencies corresponding to two distinct symbols (or one bit per symbol), to carry 300 bits per second using 300 baud. By contrast, the original ITU V.22 standard, which was able to transmit and receive four distinct symbols (two bits per symbol), handled 1,200 bit/s by sending 600 symbols per second (600 baud) using phase shift keying.








Civil Action No. 98-1232


1.  This is an action under Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act to restrain anticompetitive conduct by defendant Microsoft Corporation ("Microsoft"), the world's largest supplier of computer software for personal computers ("PCs"), and to remedy the effects of its past unlawful conduct.

6.  One important current source of potential competition for Microsoft's Windows operating system monopoly comes from the Internet, described by Microsoft's CEO, Bill Gates, in May 1995 as "the most important single development to come along since the IBM PC was introduced in 1981." As Mr. Gates recognized, the development of competing Internet browsers -- specialized software programs that allow PC users to locate, access, display, and manipulate content and applications located on the Internet's World Wide Web ("the web") -- posed a serious potential threat to Microsoft's Windows operating system monopoly. Mr. Gates warned his executives:

A new competitor "born" on the Internet is Netscape. Their browser is dominant, with a 70% usage share, allowing them to determine which network extensions will catch on. They are pursuing a multi-platform strategy where they move the key API [applications programming interface] into the client to commoditize the underlying operating system.

7.  Internet browsers pose a competitive threat to Microsoft's operating system monopoly in two basic ways. First, as discussed above, one of the most important barriers to the entry and expansion of potential competitors to Microsoft in supplying PC operating systems is the large number of software applications that will run on the Windows operating system (and not on other operating systems). If application programs could be written to run on multiple operating systems, competition in the market for operating systems could be revitalized. The combination of browser technology and a new programming language known as "Java" hold out this promise. Java is designed in part to permit applications written in it to be run on different operating systems. As such, it threatens to reduce or eliminate one of the key barriers to entry protecting Microsoft's operating system monopoly.


I'm the oe who wrote this tutorial:
What is JavaScript?
So what exactly is JavaScript? Well, it's is a scripting language developed by Netscape to add interactivity and power to web documents. Examples of JavaScript include live clocks, rollover effects, scrollers, form validations, and so on. JavaScript differs from most other programming languages in that it is relatively easy to master, even for people who have absolutely no programming experiences whatsoever.
Why learn JavaScript?
The first few words that come to mind are: "Freedom baby, freedom!" With html, you are restricted to creating static, non interactive webpages. This, in today's internet standards, is unacceptable. With JavaScript, you can change that. Imagine being able to break free and allow your creativity to dictate what you put on your webpage, instead of the other way round. And the best part is, JavaScript can be learned by anyone-yes, I said anyone!
What's the difference between Java and JavaScript?
Java is completely different from JavaScript-It's a lot more powerful, more complex, and unfortunately, a lot harder to master. It belongs in the same league as C, C++, and other more complex languages. Also, you need to compile a Java program before you can run it, whereas with JavaScript, no compilation is needed-simply open up a text editor, type it, save it, and your browser is ready to run it!
Can my JavaScript programs run on both Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers?
Unfortunately, not necessarily. JavaScript was created by Netscape, so it is most compatible with Netscape. Internet Explorer 4.x supports 99% of what JavaScript has to offer, although IE 3.x is not quite as adorable. A good rule to follow is to always test your codes using both browsers before uploading it onto the internet. You will be surprised how many websites fail to do this, annoying surfers and not even realizing that their scripts are going haywire behind their backs! (this might pertain to me too)
I also claim to have written JavaScript, or enough of it to claim ownership, although Tim Burners-Lee is commonly credited with this.

Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA (born 8 June 1955[1]), also known as "TimBL", is a British physicist, computer scientist and MIT professor, credited for his invention of the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989.[2] On 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet.

Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web's continued development. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation, and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL).[3] He is a director of The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI),[4] and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.[5][6] In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work.[7] In April 2009, he was elected as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, based in Washington, D.C.[8][9]

In brief there are three components needed to access the internet. One is a Microsoft Windows Operating System, the second is a web Browser which must be JavaScript capable, and the third is a Timing System, also written in JavaScript, and authored and owned by me.
I also wrote the Microsoft DOS V manual, and archived it and
the mirrir, undelete and unformat commands which are part of Microsoft Windows but not owned by Microsoft.
The Microsoft Operating System has copyright over the keyboard commands, and access to teh virtual memory originally called the Microsoft Virtual Machine and now called the JavaVirtual Machine.
The Timing system also contains the Mouse drivers, previously part of the 1Mb Dos 5 Operating system, and the scroll bars which enable the computer user to enlarge the screen area.
At the time of the release of DOS 3 which contained mirror commands without Microosoft's knowledge, and DOS 5 (Microsoft Disc Operating System version 5), computers were linked to each other, or a central computer such as the Time-Share Basic operating System used by The Evergreen State College, by modems.
An Eclipse 386 I used in 1990 had a DOS 5 Operting System, and an external modem which used BitCom software.

DOS Command: MIRROR - Cached
The MIRROR command is used to save information that can be used later for file recovery using the UNDELETE and UNFORMAT commands. MIRROR creates a duplicate ...



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