Magazine of the British Royal Academy

of Fine Arts


He entered the Royal Academy of Art schools in 1789, when he was only 14 years old,[6] and was accepted into the academy a year later. Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the Royal Academy at the time, chaired the panel that admitted him. At first Turner showed a keen interest in architecture but was advised to continue painting by the architect Thomas Hardwick (junior). A watercolour of Turner's was accepted for the Summer Exhibition of 1790 after only one year's study. He exhibited his first oil painting in 1796, Fishermen at Sea, and thereafter exhibited at the academy nearly every year for the rest of his life.

One of his most famous oil paintings is The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted in 1838, which hangs in the National Gallery, London. See also The Golden Bough.


Admiralty Courts in England and Wales

Today Admiralty jurisdiction is exercised by the High Court of England and Wales. The admiralty laws which are applied in this court is based upon the civil law-based Law of the Sea, as well as statutory and common law additions.

Historically, there were a number of admiralty courts. From about 1360 the sea coast of England and Wales was divided into 19 districts, and for each there was a Vice Admiral of the Coast, representing the Lord High Admiral. From 1360 to 1875 a Judge served as the "Lieutenant, Official Principal and Commissary General and Special of the High Court of Admiralty, and President and Judge of the High Court of Admiralty". In 1887 the High Court of Admiralty was absorbed into the new Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court. No judges are now appointed for the local courts, and the judicial functions of the Lord High Admiral have been passed to the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court, where they continue to be exercised by the Admiralty Judge and other Commercial Court judges authorised to sit in Admiralty cases.

Queen's Bench Division

Law of England and Wales

This article is part of the series:
Courts of England and Wales


Ministry of Justice
Secretary of State for Justice
Her Majesty's Courts Service

Civil courts

Privy Council
House of Lords
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
Court of Appeal
Master of the Rolls
Lord Justice of Appeal
High Court of Justice
President of the Queen's Bench
President of the Family Division
Chancellor of the High Court
High Court judge
County Courts
List of County Courts
County Court Bulk Centre
District Judge

Criminal courts

House of Lords
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
Court of Appeal
Lord Chief Justice
Lord Justice of Appeal
High Court of Justice
President of the Queen's Bench
High Court judge
Crown Court
List of Crown Court venues
Circuit Judge
Magistrates' Court
District Judge
Justice of the Peace

Criminal justice

Attorney General
Director of Public Prosecutions
Crown Prosecution Service

Barristers and solicitors

Bar Council
Law Society of England and Wales
Solicitor Advocate

The Queen's Bench Division — or King's Bench Division when the monarch is male — has two roles. It hears a wide range of contract law and personal injury/general negligence cases, but also has special responsibility as a supervisory court. Until 2005, the head of the QBD was the Lord Chief Justice (currently Lord Judge). A new post of President of the Queen's Bench Division was created under the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, leaving the Lord Chief Justice as President of the Courts of England and Wales, Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales and Head of Criminal Justice.[1] Sir Igor Judge became the first person to hold this office in October 2005.[2][3]

High Court Judges also sit in the Crown Court, which is concerned with criminal cases, but High Court Judges only hear the most serious and important cases, with Circuit Judges and Recorders hearing the majority. In addition, the Queen's Bench Divisional Court hears appeals on points of law from the Magistrates' Court[4] and from the Crown Court.[5] These are known as Appeals by way of Case Stated.

John Constable
His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821. Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, he was never financially successful and did not become a member of the establishment until he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52.


The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up.  J. M. W. Turner 1838
It depicts one of the last second-rate ships of the line which played a distinguished role in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, the 98-gun ship HMS Temeraire, being towed towards its final berth in East London in 1838 to be broken up for scrap.

The Fighting 

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were soon joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form a seven member "brotherhood".

The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangel
Self-Portrait (1500) by Albrecht Dürer
Born May 21, 1471(1471-05-21)
Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire
Died April 6, 1528 (aged 56)
Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire

Van Gogh   Irisises

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist artist. [1] Some of his paintings are now among the world's best known, most popular and expensive works of art.

Malcolm baker Oil 



Oil company with a patent on 100 octane petrol, and ZSM5 a catalyst which turns methanol into petrol.

("ZSM-5 (structure type MFI) is an aluminosilicate zeolite mineral belonging to the pentasil family of zeolites. Its chemical formula is NanAlnSi96-nO192•16H2O (0<n<27). Patented by Mobil Oil Company in 1975, it is widely used in the petroleum industry as a heterogeneous catalyst for hydrocarbon isomerization reactions.")
Petrol companies were forced to remove Benzine from petrol because it is a known carcinogen and also leads to retarded growth development in infant brains. They were forced to use Mobil's patents and pay royalties to the company for the use of them.
Benzine is a five carbon ring molecule, rather than petrol's eight carbon ring formula, giving rise to the "octane" name.

Record Profits
January 30, 2009: 11:44 AM ET
Exxon Mobil reported the largest annual profit in U.S. history Friday, making $45.22 billion on the back of record oil prices.

Mobil is now turning to fine art as a way of protecting some of its huge profits from inflation.

The Mitsubishi Bank purchased the Van Gogh Sunflowers painting for a record price of $100 million.

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. (株式会社三菱東京UFJ銀行 Kabushiki-gaisha Mitsubishi Tōkyō UFJ Ginkō?), or BTMU, is a Japanese bank that was established on January 1, 2006, with the merger of The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. and UFJ Bank Limited. The bank serves as the core retail and commercial banking arm of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ is the second largest bank measured by assets in the world.

The bank's head office is in Tokyo, Japan.

Working under Kanetora Taira, president of the privately owned Tokyo Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), the (tentatively named) Research Institute for the Safe Transaction of Art (RISTA) plans to ascertain the authenticity of these stored works and establish their current market value using online information and a database of overseas museums, including the Art Institute of Chicago and the Netherlands' Van Gogh National Museum. "We have found that a considerable quantity of artwork on display at national and public museums, and much of the vast store of bubble-era masterpieces hidden in bank vaults, is either fake or of a lesser quality," says Taira. "My intention is to help Japanese banks, corporations, and national tax authorities determine the intrinsic value of these works, and help owners clean up their nonperforming assets."

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