Google search rainierbank
 Is a fake site?

This is the guide to the starman's site.

If you are not sure, go here
Sub-directories available here are:
: [ MBR ] [bochs] [ debug ] [BIOS] [eicar] [fire] [win32]
(Various pages on Assembly/MS-Debug and the MBR)

This is quite interesting if you want to know something about assembly code  You don't need much experience with assembly code. I worked through it quite easily and saw the picture of the fire at the end.

If you don't, you still may want to know how to write a JavaScript,
or to build your own web site for free, like this one.

If you wish to start learning JavaScript, go here:

   Getting Started: Setting Up your code.
   Introducing objects-what JavaScript's made of
   Using the document object to explain objects.
   Functions and creating your own functions

How do I add more than one script to a page without things "screwing up"?

Creating a live clock in javascript

More JavaScript tutorials here

Where we are eventually going is

 A History of Bios
(Basic Input/Output System)
Which is just below the top of the index page

Copyright © 2007, 2011, 2012 by Daniel B. Sedory

It would take a group of accomplished authors working full-time to produce a textbook on the complete history of the PC BIOS in a reasonable amount of time. It will take us much longer to even produce a brief summary of how PC BIOS code has changed over the years. Though we have provided many details on special topics (such as Checksum Bytes and even some assembly listings), we are limited in the research we can conduct and the access we have to different types of computers. Nevertheless, we hope to provide some data on this subject you may not find anywhere else; we appreciate your feedback.

Though many of the details (and their order) have changed over the years, this is a list of the fundamental operations which the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) code must complete before handing control over to an operating system. Due to the complexity of the modern BIOS, completing these items is now often referred to as the POST (Power On Self Test), since the BIOS has also contained code for many other tasks and features for quite some time:

  • Test the Processor (CPU)
  • Verify its own code using checksums
  • Test Memory; may be preceded by DMA (Direct Memory Access) testing
  • Test the Controller chips on the Motherboard
    • Test that CPU Interrupts can be processed correctly
  • Test and Initialize I/O Interfaces; identify any media drives connected
    • Test any Serial port devices
  • Identify any 'Option ROM' devices with BIOS code of their own
    • Verify any Option ROM code using checksums
    • Allow such devices to run their own BIOS code and return
  • Initialize the BIOS Data Area in Memory
  • Test for indications of an OS Loader on any media
    • Pass control of the PC to that code

As can be seen from the partial list above, a computer's BIOS is inextricably linked to its hardware. Therefore a history of the BIOS code must also include at least an historical summary of changes in PC hardware. Before computers with new processors, other internal devices (such as a real time clock), different types of memory, etc. ever became available to the public, they invariably required changes in the BIOS code. It's important to note the major differences (such as, bus width and addressable memory) in the Intel® processor family (see table below) for any historical study of the PC's BIOS.
(original site)

Where is a PC's BIOS code stored? Various types of BIOS chips.

The Location of a PC's First Instruction

Virtually every PC, since the very first IBM® Personal Computer produced in 1981, to the latest Intel® or AMD® based PC, has had exactly the same Memory address hard-wired into its CPU as a reference for its first instruction![6]   This means every PC's CPU will always begin executing machine code instructions from essentially the same location inside its BIOS chip, or for PCs that must first move (or decompress) their BIOS code to Memory, from an equivalent location in Memory.
That address is:

F000:FFF0 (in Segment:Offset notation)  or: FFFF0h (in Linear notation). You may also find it represented by FFFF:0000 [See Figure 1 below; as listed in IBM's original Technical Reference manual; P/N 6025008], or as just FFFF:0 (in Normalized Segment:Offset notation). [Read Section 3 of our page on Segment:Offset Addressing to understand why FFFF:0 is equivalent to the Segment:Offset pair F000:FFF0.]

IBM® named this address the "Power On Reset Vector " and it always contains a far jump instruction to the beginning of the BIOS chip's Power-on RESET code. Here's a display of what you'd find in that location and the next 12 bytes of an original IBM® PC's BIOS chip:

note 6

6 Technically, this has not been exactly true for a long time. We're still looking for an Intel 80286 CPU Manual, but can state for certain that for any PC running on an i386 or later CPU, the BIOS chip's first instruction is actually accessed through address 0xFFFFFFF0. This is just 16 bytes below 4 GiB. Something to think about: How does code at that high of a Memory location become the same as the 0xFFFF0 20-bit address under a first generation IBM PC processor?

For example, from the Intel 80386, Programmer's Reference Manual, 1986, on page 176 (of 421), under Section 10.2.3 "First Instructions," we find:

    After RESET, address lines A{31-20} are automatically asserted for instruction fetches. This fact, together with the initial values of CS:IP, causes instruction execution to begin at physical address FFFFFFF0H. Near (intrasegment) forms of control transfer instructions may be used to pass control to other addresses in the upper 64K bytes of the address space. The first far (intersegment) JMP or CALL instruction causes A{31-20} to drop low, and the 80386 continues executing instructions in the lower one megabyte of physical memory. This automatic assertion of address lines A{31-20} allows systems designers to use a ROM at the high end of the address space to initialize the system.

We will have a lot more to say about this in the future, and hope to provide a much clearer explanation using our own memory diagrams, so everyone can understand the process.

Go to Page 2 of the Starman's guide

 A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity (this contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market.)

A patent  is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process.[1]:17 Patents are a form of intellectual property.

Sovereign state
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.[1] It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.[2]

Intellectual property (IP)
refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law.[1] Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the protections granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.[2] Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.

The intel 80386 chip (introduced in October 1985)  added a 32-bit architecture and a paging translation unit, which made it much easier to implement operating systems that used virtual memory. It also offered support for register debugging.

Well be discussing virtual memory and its location on later pages, but first you may wish to learn more about assembly language on the next page.

The intel 80386 computer chip used Microsoft DOS 5 which was released in 1990.
Some of the features are mentioned above (virtual memory,register debugging, paging, but how these worked is still somewhat obscure and iI hope to clarify things later.

When the first 386 computers were released in 1985 they could use an external modem which used BitCom software Here is the BitCom manual  BitCom

The intel 80386 computer chip used Microsoft DOS 5 which was released in 1990.

Later browsers were used.

Netscape and Microsoft both released browsers. Browser wars


What Most Can Find Ain't All There Is!
(Or: There's more to modern BIOS code than most have imagined!)

Although you could boot-up your computer with a DOS boot diskette or a CD-ROM disc so there's no chance of its memory being altered by anything but 16-bit real DOS before dumping its contents, even then there's no assurance (without prior research) this will provide you with a copy of all the bytes actually contained in its "BIOS chip(s)". Why? Because the BIOS code may include features that are never retained in memory; for example, a PC company's splash screen that often appears on the display when a computer is first turned on. Or, for example, this familiar EPA ("Energy Star") Logo:


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