Vanilla was the last plant I can remember genetically engineering. The challenge was to come up with a new flavour. How do you describe the flavour of vanilla? How do you design a new flavour when all you have  is your existing flavours? Do you redesign the way humans perceive flavour, or create a new flavour for the existing taste receptors? Don't believe me? See My Story.

The other important genetically enginered plant is the grape, and you can see that story here:

It is not a well known fact that Jesus had a Grandfather, the father of Mary, who owned a large water powered mill, on a stream, not far from the coast which was at the time the state of  Palestine from where Jesus and his girlfriend at the time sometimes sailed to Alexandria in Egypt, to trade and to visit the Library of Alexandria or Serapeum where birth and death records were held. For a time Jesus (James) worked in Rome, in the birth and deaths records office; see A Way in the World by VS Naipaul. His father owned a carpentry business and house not far from the lake at Galilee. It was Jesus' Grandmother, Joseph's mother, who owned a house in Bethlehem, where Mary and Joseph were going for the census when Jesus was born.

His father made barrels for shipping wine to Rome and to Greece. I'm taking a shot in teh dark here because I'm not certain of my facts, only sure, but at that time, all the wine which was being drunk in Rome was white wine made from red or purple grapes. It was Jesus who decided to add sugar and wather to the used grape skins, which were a waste product, and make a second pressing of "red" wine which he then sent to Rome, and it was voted as being the best tasting wine of all, dispite the way it was made. He also used pine wood to make barrels in which he sent grape wine to Greece, where the Greeks did not mind the pine flavour. Much of his vinyards were aroung his mother's mill near the Mediterranian coast.

The domestication of purple grapes originated in Central Asia (Ancient Persia).[1] Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. First traces of red wine is seen in ancient Persia in Armenia. Shiraz red wine is known After Shiraz a city in Persia where the grape was used. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America.

Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California.[citation needed]

Seedless Grapes

Muscat of Alexandria is a white wine grape that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera. It is considered an "ancient vine", and wine experts believe it is one of the oldest genetically unmodified vines still in existence.

Green grapes: Perlette, Muscat of Alexandria, Sugraone, Thompson Seedless, Calmeria, Italia Autumn King Seedless Grape

Red grapes: Flame Seedless, Swenson Red, Yates, Red Globe, Ruby Seedless, Christmas Rose, Emperor, Rouge, Crimson Seedless, Tudor Premium Red, Cardinal Scarlet Royal Seedless Grape

Blue-Black grapes: Beauty Seedless, Thomcord, Muscat Hamburg, Autumn Royal, Ribier, Fantasy Seedless, Marroo, Niabell Summer Royal Seedless Grape

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains is considered one of the oldest grape varieties still in existence. Ampelographers have identified the grape with the Anathelicon moschaton grape used by the Ancient Greeks and the Apiane vines planted by the Romans (so named because of the fondness that insects, such as bees (Latin apis), have for devouring the flesh of the grapes). It was probably first introduced to France by the Greeks through the trading port at Marseille and later spread to the Narbonne region by Romans in their conquest of Gaul. It was a chief export of Frontignan by the time of Charlemagne and plantings were recorded in Germany by the 12th century. It became a popular planting in Alsace by the 16th century.[6]

The fig tree, long a symbol of Western culture, may also be one of the earliest domesticated plants in the world. In an article in the June 2, 2006 issue of Science magazine, a research team led by Mordechai Kislev at Bar-Ilan University in Israel reports evidence for parthenocarpic figs from six sites in the greater Mediterranean Sea region dated between 11,700 and 10,500 years ago. This evidence of domestication at the Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA 8300-7300 BC) sites of Gilgal, Jericho, Netiv Hagdud and Gesher in the Jordan Valley and Mureybit in the Euphrates Valley, occurs at roughly the same time as rice domestication in Asia, but fully five thousand years earlier than millet or wheat or any other seed plant in the middle east.
Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.[2] Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines

Moët & Chandon (French pronunciation: [moɛt ay shah-DAUH} { e ʃɑ̃.dɔ̃]),[1] or Moët, is a French winery and co-owner of the luxury goods company Moët-Hennessy • Louis Vuitton. Moët et Chandon is one of the world's largest champagne producers and a prominent champagne house. The company holds a Royal Warrant to supply champagne to Elizabeth II.[2] Moët et Chandon was established in 1743 by Claude Moët, and today owns more than 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of vineyards, and annually produces approximately 26,000,000 bottles of champagne.[3]

Classical antiquity

5th century AD: Byzantine provinces of Palaestina I (Philistia, Judea and Samaria) and Palaestina II (Galilee and Perea)
In the 330s BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the region, and the region changed hands numerous times during the wars of the Diadochi. ultimately joining the Seleucid Empire between 219-200 BCE. In 116 BCE, a Seleucid civil war resulted in the independence of certain regions including the minor Hasmonean principality in the Judean Mountains. From 110 BCE, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of Palestine, creating a Judean-Samaritan-Idumaean-Ituraean-Galilean alliance. The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider region resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term which had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains. Between 73-63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence in to the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering of Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. The three year Ministry of Jesus, culminating in his crucifixion, is estimated to have occurred from 28-30 CE, although the historicity of Jesus is disputed by scholars. In 70 AD, Titus sacked Jerusalem, resulting in the dispersal of the city's Jews and Christians to Yavne and Pella. In 132 AD, Hadrian joined the province of Iudaea with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina, and Jerusalem was renamed "Aelia Capitolina". Between 259-272, the region fell under the rule of Odaenathus as King of the Palmyrene Empire. Following the victory of Christian emperor Constantine in the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306–324), the Christianization of the Roman Empire began, and in 326, Constantine's mother Saint Helena visited Jerusalem and began the construction of churches and shrines. Palestine became a center of Christianity, attracting numerous monks and religious scholars. The Samaritan Revolts during this period caused their near extinction. In 614 AD, Palestine was annexed by another Persian dynasty; the Sassanids, until returning to Byzantine control in 628 AD.[29]

LVMH Moët Hennessy • Louis Vuitton S.A., better known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris, Île-de-France, France. The company was formed after the 1987 merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton with Moët Hennessy, a company formed after the 1971 merger between the champagne producer Moët & Chandon and Hennessy, the cognac manufacturer.[2] [2][3][4] It controls around 60 subsidiaries that each manage a small number of prestigious brands. The subsidiaries are often managed independently.

Christian Dior, the luxury goods group, is the main holding company of LVMH, owning 42.36% of its shares, and 59.01% of its voting rights.[5] Bernard Arnault, majority shareholder of Dior, is Chairman of both companies and CEO of LVMH.[6] His successful integration of various famous aspirational brands into the group has inspired other luxury companies into doing the same. Thus Gucci (now part of the French conglomerate PPR) and Richemont have also created extended portfolios of luxury brands. The oldest of the LVMH brands is wine producer Château d'Yquem, which dates its origins back to 1593.[7]

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
Grape (Vitis)
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains growing in Weinsberg under the synonym Gelber Muskateller
Color of berry skin Blanc
Species Vitis vinifera
Also called See list of synonyms
Origin Greece
Original pedigree Muscat of Alexandria
vanilla sky
peter gabriel

Why is all music filed under Bananas?

Nazareth (play /ˈnæzərəθ/; Hebrew: נָצְרַת‎‎, Natzrat or Natzeret; Arabic: الناصرةal-Nāṣira or al-Naseriyye) is the largest city in the North District of Israel. Known as "the Arab capital of Israel," the population is made up predominantly of Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.[2][3] In the New Testament, the city is described as the childhood home of Jesus, and as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many shrines commemorating biblical events.


Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant), have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.[18][19]

Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.[20] In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.[21]

Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials,[22] among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.[23]

Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.[24]

Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.[25] Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.[26]

In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.

A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins).

A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.

A sultana was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes, or red grapes which are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.


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